Anisimova O. S.
Opening local pharmacy in Bakhchisaray
The article highlights the opening of the first pharmacy in Bakhchisaray in 1834. Defined legal basis for its functioning. Analysis of its rules, set forth in the "Regulations on Urban pharmacy". City pharmacy in Bakhchisarai was based on the national legislative framework. It determined its legal and economic principles. This suggests a centralized approach to the creation of a network of urban pharmacies. Funded in the municipalities. That is, we can talk about the uniformity of the process of creating such institutions. This approach contributed to the public interest in ensuring all people drugs. As urban pharmacies were some sort of social institution, they lacked funding. Often they had a rather poor range. However, given the above circumstances and the target audience, rely on the strong financial performance was not necessary. Therefore, when creating the pharmacy initially laid subsidies from the city treasury. Introduction to the scientific use of archival information sheds light not only on the previously little-lit aspect of the history of Bakhchisarai, but also on the development of the medical sphere of Crimea. In particular, aspects concerning the implementation of the tasks of the central authorities and city governments to supply medicinal products to the public at affordable prices.
Asanova U. K.
III and IV of the Crimean conference museum staff: the goals, projects, results
The problem of reorganization and transformation of forms and methods of work of the museum network, participation of government representatives on the one hand, and the Crimean - academic and artistic communities - on the other, remains little known story of the topic of museum development in the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the 20's and 30's years. The twentieth century. The network is the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic during the 20's and 30's. The twentieth century. undergone some significant organizational changes, all of which affected the whole organizational scheme of museum management, helped create a truly organically interconnected network of permanent institutions. Any adjustment methods of management was dictated by considerations and common priorities and interests of the state and party apparatus in the first place - for ideological control over the activities of museums in the establishment and strengthening of the sole of a totalitarian political regime in the Soviet Union, based on the cult of personality of Stalin. Analysis of the evidence base on the problem allows us to offer a new periodization of the development process of the museum network in the Crimean Autonomous Republic. It highlights the following periods: 1921–1927 gg. - The period of the emergence of new forms of museum work in the region, the resumption of the continuing operation of museums of pre-Soviet times, the emergence of new public museums of different types, leadership and methodical activity KrymOHRISa - a special government body to guide museums Crimea. 1927 - The first half of the 30's. The twentieth century. - A period of organizational change and submission museum network ideological control of the party and state organs of Soviet power: the elimination KrymOHRISa, concentration management functions in the hands of officials of the People's Commissariat of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the general crisis of the museum and the first phase of political repression against members of the museums. The second
half of the 30's. The twentieth century. - 1941 - the period of strengthening ideological control of museum work, the final formation of the museum network in the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic: direct submission and administration of museums in the competence of the Russian Federation and the People's Commissariat of the structures of the Crimean Autonomous Republic, linking the museum displays works from important tasks of economic, political and cultural rders of the governing bodies. Resolution III Conference Crimean museum employees (September 1924) give evidence of the scale of the issues and the adequacy of the conclusions of the Conference. A special resolution on museum construction outlined the main priorities of the network. For the first time acknowledged that «Crimea to all individuals within its territory of archaeological, historical, artistic and ethnographic monuments and nature is exceptional, not only national, but also international scientific value», while explicitly stated that «the study of its cultural and historic past and natural resources is the main task of the Crimean museums <...>, the implementation of this problem is possible only through the involvement of its implementation of the masses and the convergence of the museum work with the proletarian party and the cultural and educational organizations. « Solutions III conference of museum workers Crimea may be considered as innovative, timely, but sustained increase in line with the political and ideologi Second, they demonstrate the complexity of management activity KrymOHRISa, which could effectively provide work and organizational and methodological, and research directions. Third, the unique drift toward repetitio Yalta C m Conference the re conference has become a unique product of a KrymOHRISa as specialized and authorized state body to guide the museum business. Proposals put forward by the participants of the forum had their practical reflection in the future work of the Crimean museums. Overall, the network of museums of different subordination in the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1927 was as follows: ITC (Simferopol), National Palace Museum of Turkish-Tatar culture in Bakhchisaray (with branches in Mangup Kale and Calais), the State Alupka Historical Museum home, Yevpatoriya museum, museum of local history Sevastopol, Feodosia Museum, Yalta eastern museum Chersonese Historical and Archaeological Museum, the Kerch Historical and Archeological Museum.
Religious and public activity of Witnesses of Jehovah in the conditions of soviet underground in Ukraine
The author of publication gives it a shot to analyse as religious activity (divine service of community, uses of religious literature, propagating) so public position of Jehovah's Witnesses. The features of functioning of this religious group are marked in the conditions of soviet underground in Ukraine, in particular methods of pressure on believers by the workers of internal services and local administration.
The use land in the process Of move and resettlement of migrants in the middle of twenties in the Crimea
In the middle of twenties the move of the inhabitants from the outside of the Crimea and the settlement inside the peninsula was taking place. However both settlements and resettlement were not developed much and did not reduced the land deficiency liquidation for the labour allotments to the native people in the mountainous areas. Not only locals took part in that process. After the decision of Moscow authorities the move of inhabitants to the steppe regions from other regions began. The resettlement of Jews from Byelorussia to the Crimea began. The special committees were created to direct the process of land allotment for the Jews migrants. The Crimean authorities did not bear the situation of the move from the other territories of the USSR enthusiastically. According to the obtained data the persons springing beyond the bounds of the Crimea and settled on its territory made up 53% (percent). Those land requirements were fully satisfied. The settling was made without the Crimean authorities arbitrariness. The recommendations of Moscow authorities were discharged. The inside Crimean resettlement was provided according to the decree «The order of land allotment in the Crimea».
South-Ukrainian Vector of Ukrainian Collective Farmers' Migrations in the Post World War II Era
The article studies the Ukrainian rural population's migration in the years following the German occupation. Governmental activities aiming at refilling the demographic gap in the Crimea after the Tatars' expulsion are analyzed. The article also addresses the post-war renewal of farm-stead dwellers' enforced removal to bigger villages and other regions of the country. The focus of the research is the issue of farmers' families' voluntary and compulsory resettlement in the Ukrainian Republic's southern areas. The article proves that the process of resettlement itself and the migrants' maintenance appeared to be inconsistent and poorly executed by the authorities. Thus we register the results of such migration policy, primarily the negative impact on the population. Demographic issues caused by the war were aggravated by the governmental repressive activities. As a result gender-age and ethnic structure of Ukraine's regions was considerably distorted. The said deformations resulted into transformations in population's demographic behavior. The latter's manifestation was the decrease in birth rate which eventually dropped to the level that could not provide the population's reproduction. The regions under analysis were marked by the rural population's mobility. The practice of people's enforced transferring to other economic zones considerably undermined the production capacities of the emigration regions. Due to constant drafting of experts in various fields from the rural areas their production and educational potential was reduced. Therefore we speak of the enforced migration policy's rashness and social, economic and demographic futility.
Heinrich, the Duke of Anhalt-Koethen (1830-1847)
The article is devoted to the biography of Heinrich, the Duke of Anhalt-Koethen, who was the second owner of Askania-Nova colony. (Later on the territory of Askania-Nova a worldwide known nature reserve and numerous scientific institutions were established). The scientific sources and literature on the abovementioned topic have been analyzed. The descent of Heinrich himself as well as that of his family and marriage has been studied. The development of his career in the state service (Prince-Duke-Herzog) has been reconstructed, in the context of which Heinrich's military career is reflected, too. Together with the relatives he organized a dynastic order of «Albrecht the Bear». During his reign the government was aiming to provide a stable economic growth. Heinrich relied on his Anhalt colony a lot. During his reign many settlements of the colony were given names, Askania-Nova is one of them.
Commemorate the 100th anniversary of the War of 1812 Taurian province zemstvo
Problems associated with the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the War of 1812. Identify ways of celebrating in the center of the Russian Empire. The activity Zemsky county and provincial assemblie Tauride in honor of celebrating the anniversary. Indicated that, in general acted in zemstvo nationwide trend of the anniversary celebration. The mode of celebration was raised in advance, solutions to each of the county zemstvo partially solved independently, partly rely on the opinion of the provincial zemstvo assembly. Expanding the topic says that there were three main ideas of celebrating the 100th anniversary nominated in the zemstvo. First, participation in the financing of construction Zemstvos Memorial Church in Maloyaroslavets. In connection with this appeal highlights of monetary assistance from the special committee on the construction of the temple. Secondly, the purpose of individual scholarships in honor of the heroes of the war of 1812, and their name is the school district. Zemstvo and the county are named individual schools and scholarships, which have become registered. Third, the promotion of knowledge about the War of 1812 among young people by spreading among high school students brochures. Named chosen Zemstvo Assembly brochure A.Y. Efimenko and explained the reasons for this choice. The contribution of zemstvo assembly Taurian province in celebration of the Patriotic War of 1812.
Ischenko E. S.
The Feodosiya Church of the Iveron Icon of the Mither of Gog
The history of the church of the Iveron icon of the Mother of God in Feodosia is expanded. There are brief characteristic of the medieval period of the shrine, its revival in the middle of the XIX century, the Soviet stage and recovery in the 1990-th. Special attention is paid to the events connected with the opening of the church in the late of XX century. Debates on the pages of the periodical literature of that time are consecrated. The modern fate of the object of researched. The church of the Iveron icon of the Mother of God has witnessed many dramatic events in the history of the ancient city Feodosiya. The time of construction is considered to be 1348. It was called the temple of Saint John the Baptist. Furthermore from the arrival of the Turkish domination and to joining Crimea to Russia existence in the shrine freezes. Only in 1856 the church was restored and sanctified in the name of the Iveron Icon of the Mother of God. In the Soviet period the temple was closed and ruined again because of the state policy. In 1990-th a modern period of rebirth of the shrine has begun. On 16 of April, 1996 mass was held in the temple. Gradually changed the view of the territory of the temple thanks to efforts of priest Anthony Repin. Finally the church of the Iveron icon of the Mother of God in Feodosia as one of the main attractions of the city involves lots of people to visit this place and enjoy i.
Lepisevich N. Z.
«Plagued riot» in 1830 in Sevastopol on the pages of military doctor N. I. Zakrevskiy’s memoirs
One of the brightest and most dramatic events in the history of Sevastopol is the rebellion of citizens and sailors since 3 till 7 of June, 1830. In the study of the events unfolding from January to June 1830, the researchers can only rely on a very small circle of historical sources. In this respect, a valuable source for the social history of Sevastopol submitted memories of surgeon Nikifor Ivanovich Zakrevskiy published in the pages of naval magazine «Sea Collection» in 1861-1865 years. This fact is caused by the relevance of chosen topic. The article presents the memoirs of N. I. Sakrevskiy, eyewitness, of the «plagued riot» in 1830 in Sevastopol. These memoirs were published in the journal «Marine Collection» in the 60 years of XIX century. The author examines in what way these documents help to understand the character of the events in Sevastopol in 1830 and the population»s reaction to them. Bringing this group of resources into scientific usage can help to define the general picture of the events in the period from January 1830, prior to the rebellion in June 1830. The author of this article researched and analyzed works of Nikifor Ivanovich Zakrevskiy and attempted to understand how the doctor, who witnessed all events, perceived and evaluated the events «plague riot» in 1830. Appealing to the evidence of witness of «plague riot» in Sevastopol reflect the complexity of the events of 1830. These materials contain many vivid details that allow to imagine the lives of the people of Sevastopol during the early quarantine of the city. Being more free from ideological assessments than the official documentation, memories of military doctor N. I. Zakrevskiy help to avoid unilateral approaches for understanding the nature of Sevastopol rebellion of 1830.
Nepomnyashy A. A.
Biografy of N. M. Pechonkin`s
Unknown corps of documents from the scientific archive of military historical museum of artillery, engineering troops and troops of connection came into use of scientists. Materials from personal fund of famous explorer of Chersoneses, archaeologist-amateur, colonel of artillery have been considered. Texts of before unknown manuscripts about protection of cultural legacy in Crimea are brought.
Pasechnikov I. A.
The activities of the political police of the Taurida Governorate in the 70-s of the XIX century
The article examines the organization and activities of the political police of Taurida Governorate in the period from 1870 to 1880. Special attention was paid to the work of its bodies. The duties of the Corps of gendarmes in maintaining political order and the struggle against the revolutionary movement had been analyzed. An attempt to determine the role of the gendarmerie in the historical process in the Crimea and Northern Tavria in this period was made. 70-s of XIX century was one of the most important times in the history of the political police. The reform in 1867 eliminated the gendarmerie squads. In their place came the centralized Taurida Governorate Gendarme Department. It was also formed the railway gendarmerie-police department. They had their branches in all parts of the region. The assistants of the department head operated in all major cities. Noncommissioned officers were located in villages and towns. Therefore, in the new decade they took control of the entire territory of the Crimea and Northern Tavria. Departments retained the same gendarmerie tasks. But in this period they had the first encounter with the revolutionary activity of the population. Also there were other challenges of the era. In the article the little-known sources and archival documents had been used.
Prokhorova T. A.
Crimean Travels: Ancient Inkerman, Chersonese and Balaclava by Charles Elliott
The studying of the Crimean antiquities has more than one hundred year’s history. The special role in this process has been played by the travelers of the late XVIII – the first half of the XIX-th century. It is found that by the middle of the XIX-th century the first tourist trips were made. The visit of Charles B. Elliott to the Crimea in 1830-s was one of them. It was considered the difference between the definitions «traveler» and «tourist». The notes of traveler’s biography are based on memoirs of his daughter Alicia Elliott. Charles Elliott visited a lot of countries – Turkey, Italy, France, India, Egypt, Greece, Russia. He made his travels because of work and service, but trip to the Crimea was made in search of health. He took special interest in the Crimean history, especially – in the antiquity. He wrote about the South – Western part of the Crimea, including Balaclava, Inkerman and Chersonese. Those notes of him were translated and analyzed in comparison with the works of other travelers to the Crimea. The notes of E. Henderson, V. Passek, J. Gamba, V. Bronevsky, W. Jesse, R. Lyall were used to show the official Crimean history’s image that was correct by that period among European scientists. It was found that C. Elliott used different historical sources and works of his «colleagues», such as Strabo, Herodotus, Pliny, P. Pallas, E. Clarke, but he never discusses with them. It is found that he was the author of interesting theories, that were based on the works of the main historians. Elliott raised the issue of some questions in the ancient Crimean history that are topical problems up to our days, such as discussion about localization of the cape and temple of Parthenos, about cave monasteries of Inkerman, about fortress Chembalo in Balaclava. It is concluded that C. Elliott is one of the informative author on the Crimean history. It is important that his work was translated to Ukrainian (and Russian) and put into scientific operation.
Serova K. D.
Counterfeiting of food products on the domestic market of the Crimea in the second half of XIX –at the beginning of XX centuries
The problems of food quality today are increasingly report in the media. It would be naive to believe that this situation is relevant only for the present. The domestic market of the Crimea in the second half of the XIX century was filled with counterfeit goods. The most counterfeited in the peninsula were the most popular products: bread, butter, tea, alcohol and coffee. The most widespread falsification as in the Crimea, and the Empire in the 70–90 years of the XIX century was counterfeit of butter. The product mixed into beef tallow, pork lard, and coconut oil. Butter was painted carrot juice and even aniline dyes. Widespread counterfeiting was sale of margarine under the guise of natural butter. Milk diluted with water and thickening it with starch, fish glue and lime, add the flour herbs, including toxic, as well as sand, sweetening wine, and adding to it the alcohol, fruit and berries, cleaning and painting of spoiled meat, and many other no less sophisticated methods of counterfeiting food were common in the domestic market of the peninsula in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries. Supervision of the quality of products in the domestic market of the Crimea by market caretakers, health officers and representatives of the local government. The presence of counterfeit goods in the domestic market of the empire led to the creation of June 18, 1909 the Committee for the fight against counterfeiting of food. The main objectives of the Сommittee were: the development of concepts of normal food, a comprehensive examination and disclosure of falsification and develop practical measures to combat it.
The problem of counterfeiting food was acutely in the domestic market of the Crimea in the second half of the XIX – at the beginning of the XX th centuries. These processes are adversely influenced not only the material conditions of local residents, but also had an impact on their psychological and physical health.
Dynamic change of Muslim clergy in Crimea last quarter XIX - early XXcenturies (based on Department of Religious Affairs Foreign Confessions MIA)
The article is devoted to poorly studied statistics of the Muslim clergy in Taurida province. Information was presented by Mohammedan Spiritual Board to the Department of Religious Affairs of Foreign Confessions MIA. In the article the statistics of Muslims last quarter of the XIX to the beginning of XX centuries is presented. Officially, all located here clergy remained in their seats after joining Crimea to Russia. Over time, in addition to traditional confessional and legal, and it acquired the status of public service. Crimean Muslim clergy was gradually incorporated deeply enough into the bureaucracy of the Russian Empire. To analyze the dynamics of the Muslim clergy of Taurida Gubernia should refer to case number 1143, stored in the Russian State Historical Archive. On the basis of archival documents there was an attempt to recreate the statistical picture of not only the number of Muslim clergy. The numerical parameters of mosques, the total number of Muslims Taurida province were studied. We consider the demographics of fertility, mortality of the Muslim population, as well as registered marriages in the period. This period is interesting in fact that in 1893 there was a wave of mass emigration of Crimean Tatars to Turkey. Specifically, it had an impact on the nature of the statistical reports.
Khapaev V. V.
Historiography of 19-20th ages about Crimean earthquakes of the antique and medieval periods
The historiography of Crimean seismic history of the antique and medieval periods, created in second half XIX – 70th years of the XX centuries is analyzed in this article. Process of origin and transformation into a historiographic myth of a hypothesis about destructive influence to Crimea of earthquakes with epicenters around Sea of Marmara is studied. The author cites the data of natural-science researches proving an inaccuracy of this thesis. Special attention is given to the analysis of Crimean earthquakes historiography created in 20-40th years of the XX-th century «under impression» from destructive seismic event on September, 11th, 1927. Monography «Antisejsmizm of ancient architecture» by A. S. Bashkirov, created in 30-40th years of the XX century, was highly appreciated by the author for it contains a large analytical material about the antiseismic receptions applied in ancient cities, including the Crimean ones. Unfortunately, this research remains not noticed by the Soviet scientists. The author emphasizes catalogue of the Crimean earthquakes created by M. V. Smirnov in 1933 is not reconsidered till our days and is used in the historic and archaeological literature without criticism. During archeological excavations of 50-70th years of the XX-th century researchers aspired to find proofs of the earthquakes mentioned in this catalogue even if they were not in reality. It has led to the strengthening of the developed myths and promoted the noncritical approach in search of archaeological monuments destruction reasons. For example, traces of archaeological monuments of Kerch peninsula destruction in I century BC archeologists continue to treat as evidence of the devastating earthquake of 63 year BC in the Crimea. However, as has shown the source study analysis of Italian researcher G. Traina, this earthquake could occur not in Crimea, but in Syria, and therefore it had no destructive consequences on Kerch peninsula. The same concerns to D. L. Talis «detection of destructive traces» of the Crimean earthquake in XIV century, which was not in reality. Nevertheless, the actual material which has been saved up by historians, archeologists and seismologists, has allowed to rethink seismic history of the Crimean peninsula on a new methodological basis on a boundary of the XX-XXI centuries. The new stage in studying of ancient and medieval earthquakes on the Crimean peninsula has begun in 80th years of the XX century. Interest to this problem has grown in connection with struggle for closing of the Crimean atomic power station in which seismic history arguments were actively used.
The women issue at the All-Russian Muslim Congress in Moscow (materials from the personal archive of Shefika Gasprinskaya)
The article deals with the All-Russian Muslim Congress and participation of Muslim women in it, which was held on the 1st–11th of May 1917 in Moscow. Congress began its work on the 1st of May 1917 in the house of Sh. Asadullayev (Azerbaijani millionaire), bought by him in Moscow for creation a national school in it. More than 900 delegates from all the regions of Russia took part in it, including 112 women (by other sources – 120), 9 of them represented a delegation of the Congress of Muslim Women of Russia and its resolution. 25 delegates from Crimea came to the Congress. There were three women in this delegation – Shefika Gasprinskaya, Dilyara Bulgakova and Zeyneb Davidovich. A daughter of the great enlightener Ismail Gasprinskiy Shefika Gasprinskaya was a prominent member of the delegation. Shefika Khanum was a leader of the TurkicMuslim women’s movement, a public figure and a journalist. She stood at the origins of women journalism in the Russian Empire. She was an editor of the first specialized magazine for Muslim women «Alem-i-nisvan» («The Women's World»). There are valuable documents about the Moscow congress in the personal archive of Sh. Gasprinskaya. In this article the author has repeatedly researched and used the materials from the personal archive of Shefika Khanum. This congress was an important event for the Turkic-Muslim community of the Russian Empire. The policy documents adopted in Moscow were truly progressive and reformist. One of the very actual issues of the All-Russian Congress was a problem of equality and education of Muslim women. The Moscow congress was a first Muslim congress where the women issues were discussed. The decisions of the congress lodge Muslim women with political and civil powers. The decisions changed a social status of women, intensified the women’s movement, and became a starting point of feminism of Russian Muslims.
Shendrikova S. M.
Savina's troupe's tours around Crimea: based periodicals
The presented scientific publication is dedicated to the creativity of a great Russian actress of the late XIX-early XX centuries M. Savina. She started her theatric career in the province of Russia. During the first years of acting she was working in theaters of Elisavetgrad, Minsk, Kharkov, Nizhny Novgorod. However, M. Savina gained her nation-wide fame on one of the top scenes of Russian Empire, in the Alexandrine Theatre in St. Petersburg. The young provincial actress started acting in this theater in 1874. Until her death M. Savina remained allegiant to her home theater. Her best images were presented there. Among her best roles are: Vera («A Month in the Country» by Turgenev), Maria Antonovna («The Government Inspector» by Gogol), Maria Andreevna («The Poor Bride» by Alexander Ostrovsky). And these are only a few roles, so beloved by the audience.
In spite of the popularity in the metropolitan scene, M. Savina practiced regular theatric tours around the province of Russia. Her Crimean tours, in fact, are the subject of this scientific publication. Based on the materials of local periodicals of the time, the author analyzes M. Savina’s success of on the Crimean theatric stage. The article provides a detailed report on all touring of the actress in Crimea with the exact dates, performances and theaters, where M. Savina was performing. In addition, the author presents data on M. Savina’s troupe incomes during and after the tours. Analyzing creative journeys of the actress, the author also highlights their important role in the cultural life of the Crimean society at the time.