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Vol. 25 (64) № 2. 2012
Historical Science

Abibullaeva E. E.
Symbolics of Gravestones: Comparative Analysis of the Materials of Muslim  Cemeteries of Bakhchisaray and Turkey of 17th-19th centuries
The article is the result of scientific research expedition that took place from 24/06/12 to 07/01/12.  As the basis for this research saved tombstones of Muslim cemeteries (17-19 centuries) were taken.  They originate in Bakhchisarai and related districts, and cemeteries of Edirne, Istanbul, Bursa (Turkey).  The study of Muslim tombstones in Crimea began in the early 20 century. At the same time the archaeological excavations in Staryi Krym, Otuzy, Bakhchisarai (Eski Yurt) were actively conducted. As a result,  description of different types of tombstones and epitaphs transcript were made. Osman Akchokrakly made a  great contribution to the study of these monuments. He decoded many gravestones inscriptions in Staryi Krym  and Chufut-Khale. In 1927, on the basis of his researched materials an article titled «Tatar tamgi in Crimea»  was published. The works of postwar and contemporary reseachers are devoted mostly to ornaments, epigraphy, partial cataloging of these monuments. Nowadays, these monuments are still unexplored to the end. No  work to study the symbolism of saved tombstones, full decoding epigraphy and to compose a complete catalog  of these endangered witnesses of history and culture was carried out. The article presents a comparative analysis of more than 2000 tombstones of 17–19 centuries. The distinctive criteria of men and women’s gravestones  are identified; the attempt to interpret the symbols used on the gravestones was made. The tombs of Sufi orders representatives that have been considered for the first time are of particular interest.

Akimchenkov V. V.
The second congress of figures on study of local lore of the Black Sea coast and  the Western Caucasus: unknown pages history protection of monuments
Memories of the employee of the Sevastopol museum of study of local lore of M. I. Kljuchnikovoj on the second congress of figures on study of local lore of the Black Sea coast and the Western Caucasus, taking in  its course direct part are published. The general characteristic is given a condition of the Soviet movement of  regional studies in the early twenties of the XX-th century. In 20th years of the XX-th century spontaneous  growth of movement of regional studies in territory of Soviet Union was observed. The given fact has induced  the Academic center of the National commissariat of education in 1921 to take measures to settlement of the  similar phenomenon. In December of the same year the First All-Russia conference of societies on studying of  local edge on which the Central bureau of study of local lore, were has been generated up to 1925 at the Russian Academy of Sciences has taken place. Functions of coordination of movement of regional studies have  been assigned to it and the account of forces of regional studies in the country. Already the first trial calculation has shown that by March, 1923 in the USSR there were 553 societies of regional studies, circles and museums. In December, 1924 the Second All-Union Conference on Study of local lore after which Central bureau of study of local lore became independent establishment under the authority of Glavnauki of RSFSR has  been called. At this congress the concept about necessity of conducting work of regional studies on the basis of a direct connection with the state planning bodies, the Soviet public and scientific institutions has been  developed. Under the given slogan all further life of establishments of regional studies also proceeded. Considerable growth of a network of cells of regional studies has led to searches on places of organizational structure of the device of regional studies which could regulate its activity in regional, provincial or district scale.  The first stage of the given way were congresses of regional studies on which the organizational question was  resolved or election of independent bureau, or section establishment at any local planned establishment, national education department, or the central organization of regional studies – depending on local conditions.

Andreeva L. Yu.
To the history of the panorama «Sturm Perekop»
Considered part of Academician N. Samokish in development of one of the key themes of the heroic  victories of the Red Army during the Civil War, the history of the panorama «Sturm Perekop» and the role of  the artist in the establishment of Soviet battle-art. The «Storm Perekop» was dedicated to the most brilliant  victory over Wrangel – Perekop–Chongarskoy operations of Soviet troops of the Southern Front under the  leadership of M. Frunze. A collective of artists carried out this task. The work involved: M. Greeks, G.  Sawicki, V. Efanov, G.. Gorelov, P. Dobrynin, V. Meshkov and others. Academician N. Samokish written  many papers on the subject, however, he was invited by the chief consultant of the project. His students M.  Avilov and P. Kotov also took part in this large-scale project. Panorama and diorama «Storm Perekop» was  first put on display in Moscow (1938), and then in Simferopol (1940–1941). Unfortunately, during the  evacuation of the Great Patriotic War, the part of the panorama «Storm Perekop» was destroyed in a bombing  raid in the city of Kerch.

Anisimova O. S.
Сity of Crimea and their administrative and territorial changes
The article highlights the dynamics of the administrative-territorial reforms of the Crimean cities during  the tenure of the peninsula in the Russian Empire. A classification of towns based on their administrative  status. The dynamics of changes in the structure of cities as a whole and each of its components in particular.  Taurian center field, and after, and the province has Simferopol. Having said that, he also served at the same  time and county. Besides him the centers of counties throughout the period in the peninsula in the Russian  Empire were Yevpatoria Perekop Levkopol (Old Crimea), Feodosia, Yalta. Bezuezdnye: Bakhchisaray Karasubazar, Balaclava, Kerch, Yenikale, Sevastopol. Centers city hall: Feodosia, Kerch-Yenikale, Sevastopol and  Yalta. Pharmacist - Levkopol and Evpatoria. Initially, the official status of the Crimea district received four  cities Simferopol, Levkopol, Evpatoria, Perekop. In the same year, the decree of 12 July 1784, to the Taurian  area were joined by two of the city - and the Kerch Yenikale. Changes in the structure occurred in 1787, when  the center moved to the county Levkopolskogo Theodosius himself county was called Feodosia. A Levkopol  became a provincial town. The following changes have occurred since the establishment of new ones. For  example, in 1837 in the Crimea has another county town - Yalta. And in 1859 - another bezuezdny city - Balaklava. In the entire history of the Crimea there are four city hall. The first of these appeared in Feodosia  and existed from 1803-1829 years. In 1821 was created the Kerch-Yenikalsky city hall (1821-1918 gg.), And  in 1873 - Sevastopol (1873-1918 gg.). In addition, in 1914, was created by the Yalta city hall, which was abolished with the establishment of Soviet power in the Crimea.

Asanova U. K.
Transport activity Kherson State Historical and Archaeological Museum (20–30-ies  ХХ century)
In the early 20's. twentieth century, there was a significant recovery of archaeological research in the  Crimea. This was associated with the active work of national institutions to regulate and oversee the study and preservation of historical and cultural monuments: Glavnauka Commissariat of the RSFSR, its specialized  departments – the Department of Museum Glavnauka, GAIMK, specialized regional units – KrymOHRISa, is  run by the People's Commissariat of the Crimean Autonomous Republic. Work on the study of ancient  monuments have received financial support from the national authorities. process of direct organization  excavation sites were to provide a single unit of state network of museums of the country. They are also  entrusted with the technical support of the collection, description, registration and storage of found objects.  Therefore, the main task of the Crimean museums in the study of historical monuments in the region can be  described as an auxiliary. This work became the basis of the relevant archaeological museums of Crimea –  Kherson and Kerch State Historical and archaeological museums, independent work on the survey of antiquity  was also able to organize the archaeological department of ITC.  Most large scale, methodologically sound and complete archaeological and monument protective  activities were conducted during the 20's and 30's. The twentieth century. in the Crimea in the Kherson  fortress of Sevastopol. Develop principles and consistency of these works has been the subject of joint  discussion of the State Directorate Chersonesos historical and archeological museum with relevant regulatory  bodies – GAIMK, the Museum Department Glavnauka Commissariat of the RSFSR, VNAV the CEC of the  USSR. During the formulation of plans for the study of ancient and medieval Chersonese was an active and  meaningful discussion between the management of the museum institutions (represented by its director in  1924-1928. Grinevitch K. E.) and representatives GAIMK, sent to observe the excavations in 1925-1926  years. a representative (N. D. Protasov). The result of this collaboration was the conflict management and  GAIMK Chersonesos museum, which led to the creation of the fall of 1926 a special commission to  develop a plan of survey of Hersonissos.  The main result of K. E. Grinevich as director of the museum of Chersonesos was the suggestion of five  prospective production plan of the archaeological survey of Chersonese, which involved the priorities of the  organization prior to publication of material prior to excavation Chersonese direct archaeological  investigation. Implementation of this plan would fill the missing documentary base for the subsequent  organization of excavations in Chersonesos.  K. E. Grinevich proposed principles for excavations show consistency and comprehensiveness of there  have been implemented in practice in large-scale works of the 30's., the twentieth century, are produced in the  northern part of the settlement under the direction of D. Belov. These excavations have allowed for the first  time to fully trace the development of life in the ancient and medieval era to the integrity of the area towns,  discover some of the most significant monuments of the museum.
During the 20's and 30's., the twentieth century State Chersonese Historical and Archaeological Museum  held as a separate administrative and research center for the study of ancient and medieval periods of the  history of individual regions of the Crimea. The scale and quality of the research data allow us to estimate the  work as model for the level of scientific research of the period studied.

Gavrilov V.M.
Enrolment into the institutions of labour reserve system as a factor of deformation  of the sex-age structure of the population of collective farm villages
This article is devoted to the study of certain aspects of the population processes in thepost-war Ukrainian  villages. The article contains the analysis of the government measures on enrolment into the institutions of the  labour reserve system, organization of their functioning, social demur of the enrolled population, as well as  identification of consequences of the state training and mobilization policy. The attention is drawn to the fact  that the demographic problems of the modern Ukrainian villages and the demographic degradation of certain  rural areas is based on the historical determinant. Among the factors that were present in the population  processes of the Ukrainian village, it has to bepointed out the factors of the campaigns of training and labour  mobilizations arranged by the government. It is underlined the involuntary nature of the enrolment into the  labour reserve training institutions. Special attention is paid to the steady tendency to the decrease of  performance indices and non-performance of plans of mobilizing the youth for training. It is noted that these  campaigns were always accompanied by the issues of social adaptation of the enrolled population. Social  demur is expressed in the wide range of countermeasures. Significant turnover of students and young workers  remained one of the main problems of the mobilization. Escapes were typical both for schools and future  industrial enterprises. Since the youth and collective farm workers were recruited in the coal and metallurgic  industries as well as in the building sector of the heavy industry, the enrolment was realized mainly at the  expense of the male employable farmers. Due to this their share in the collective farms was drastically  reduced. Mobilizations drained the villages of the most important resource – youth, which adversely affected  the further development of the whole agricultural sector. The consequences of these government actions were  manifested in significant decrease of the rural population both due to the mobilizations and the increase of the  rate of urban extension. The analysis of these actions allows to emphasize the critical slowdown of the process  of reproduction of the rural population and deep deformation of its sex-age structure.

Gankevich V.Yu
The influence of Anhalt-Russian dynastic connections on the history of Ukraine (to  the 800th anniversary of Anhalt statehood)
The article is devoted to the long-term dynastic relations of ruling houses of Anhalt (Askania) and Russia  (Romanov). The sources and literature on the topic have been analyzed. The author focuses on the period from  the XVIII to the first half of the XIX century. Mother of Catherine II – Johanna Elizabeth Duchess of AnhaltZerbst was a distant relative of the Rurik dynasty. Emperor Paul I, Alexander I, Nicholas I and Count Alexei  Bobrinsky – descendants of Princess Sophia of Anhalt-Zerbst (Catherine II). She was flag A. Bobrinsky. It  was placed clan emblem – black bear. Duke Friedrich Ferdinand of Anhalt-Köthen was a relative of the emperors of Russia. His wife Julia, Countess von Brandenburg was the aunt of the Prussian Princess Friederike  Charlotte Wilhelmina. (Later, the princess became the wife of Nicholas I). Apart from the purely dynastic  story, the issues of mutual inter-state ceremonies of monarchs and dignitaries, the establishment of diplomatic  relations, the impact of these relations on the military and social-economic development of Ukraine are studied. Holders of the Russian «Order of Saint Andrew» became Anhalt dukes, princes and counts. Cavaliers  Anhalt «Order Albrecht Bear» became Emperor Nicholas I, his ministers and governors. This subject is related  to the history and development of the Anhalt colony in Taurida province, which later became the worldfamous Askania-Nova nature reserve.

Zadereychuk I. P.
Milling industry of the Germans in Crimea XIX – the first third ХХ century
Examined issues of the milling industry of the Germans in Crimea XIX – the first third of the twentieth  century. The causes of the construction of mills. Analyzed the main periods of a miller. The causes and characteristics of the spread of new technologies. Studied the dynamics of change in the number of mills and their  percentage compared to other nationalities. Revealed regional characteristics of the mills. The reasons of the  use of new technologies. Disclosure Policy of Soviet power in the matter of the mills, including the Germans.  Argues that the First World War and the establishment of Soviet power had a negative impact on the position  of the mill case of the Germans.  Separately studied large enterprises that belonged to the Germans. It is proved that the Germans were the  pioneers in the application of advanced technology in the milling business. In places where the Germans managed to become a monopoly in the organization of processing wheat.

Ischenko E. S.
The Orthodox Cult Edifices of Sevastopol (The End of XVIII – The Beginning of XX  Century)
The register of Orthodox Church buildings of Sevastopol of the end of XVIII - the beginning of XX century is recreated. A brief history of the Orthodox churches, chapels, house churches and monasteries of the  city and its environs is given. The pre-Soviet period of some important shrines is presented with illustrations.  The modern fate of the objects of research is established. Materials about the Orthodox religious edifices of  Sevastopol rely on pre-Soviet and modern literature. About their fate at the present time it is reported briefly or not specified. By 1916 in Sevastopol and its surroundings were about 19 the Orthodox churches, 3 monasteries, a house church, and several chapels.  Since the foundation of Sevastopol it was built as a fortress on the southern borders of the Russian Empire and the base of the Russian military of the Black sea fleet. Besides, in his surroundings – in Chersonese  the Grand Prince of Vladimir was baptized and hence Christianity and the Byzantine culture spread throughout  Russia. In this regard, already by the middle of XIX century in Sevastopol, Balaklava and its surroundings  were 7 churches of the military Department, 7 of the diocesan offices, first-class Balaclava St. George monastery and two monasteries. Unfortunately, the inhibition of progress of many Orthodox shrines of the city has  caused the Crimean war of 1853–1856 because Sevastopol was one of the main arenas of battles. Extensive  damage to the facilities caused the policy of the Soviet authorities, the events of the great Patriotic war. The  revival of the shri only of Sevastopol, the Crimea, but also for the world culture. Let us hope that in the future these monuments  of architecture will be pleasing to the eye and warms the soul of believers.

Kravchuk A. S.
Taurida governor D. B. Mertvago
On the basis of various historical data and other sources, the biography of the statesman of the XIX century D. B. Mertvago was recreated. For the first time an assessment of his occupation at different positions  was represented. The details of his activities as the Taurida civil governor were restored. For the first time an  assessment of his occupation at different positions was represented. The details of his activities as the Taurida  civil governor were restored. It was a difficult period in the history of Taurida province. Taurida governor D.  B. Mertvago worked on created of Commission of the land problems. It was a complex process. He must to  decided the problem quickly and he coped. Taurida governor created a militia of the Crimean Tatars. He engaged in colonization of South Ukraine. He created his own project of colonization. Governor created a new  industry, such as wine. It was important for Russia Empire and had to bring a lot of money. He was an outstanding administrator and did many for Crimea and the country.

Leybenson Yu. T.
«Let there be light to you every stone»: the views on the postmortal fate Greeks in  the Northern Black Sea Region (based on the epigraphic sourсes)
This article analyzes the reflection in the epitaphs of ancient cities in the Northern Black Sea Region  views in the postmortal fate of man. It is known that the perception of existence beyond the grave gradually  changed. In the archaic and classical periods partially prevailed pessimistic view of the afterlife. In Hellenistic  times widely distributed customs associated with the glorification of the dead. Finally, in Roman times glorification becomes widespread. If the heroes were previously only oykists and brave soldiers, in the first century  AD, each family honor their dead, as spiritual guardians. For the characters of special monuments erected in  their honor sacrifices. In the northern Black Sea coast these processes are reflected in the different types of  sites, including epitaphs. Epitaph to a mass material. Therefore, they show not only the traditions of the polis,  but also on the individual views of the authors. Attention is drawn to the fact that the Northern Black Sea  colonies typical of practically contemporaneously with metropolitan evolution of views on the afterlife. epitaphs from Olbia and cities of Bospor classical time, with some exceptions, laconic. Hellenistic inscriptions  also increasingly turning to personality rights, many epitaphs provide hope for a blissful fate of the deceased.  An interesting contrast to the epitaphs of Chersonesus epitaphs Olbia and cities of the Bosporus. Hellenic glorification of the dead, of course, affected the Chersonesus, it was evidenced by the many forms of tombstones.  But Chersonesus' epitaphs to the Roman period also scarce, as in the previous era.

Lepisevich N. Z.
Life and literary heritage of Sevastopol military doctor N.I. Zakrevskiy on the  pages of the magazine «Marine Collection»
The article deals with the biography and the creative heritage of the little-known military doctor who  served in Sevastopol in the 30-60s of the XIX century - Nikifor Ivanovich Zakrevskiy. The analyzed memoirs  of N. I Zakrevskiy are published in the journal «Marine Collection» in 60 years of XIX century. This publication is one of the most important sources of studying of the development of specific spheres of life of the investigated historical period. This is because the periodicals at all times served as the most massive and quick  source of information. They contained a wealth of material for study and scientific analysis of the most important events in the history of the Russian Empire, including that of the regional specifics. The object of research  is the scientific legacy of Sevastopol military doctor N. I. Zakrevskiy, who wrote the memoirs describing life  in Sevastopol in 1830s.  The notes of surgeon Nikifor Ivanovich Zakrevskiy published in the pages of «Marine Collection» is a  valuable source for the history of the Crimea and Sevastopol in 1830. The author was a witness of formation  and development of the Black Sea Fleet in difficult conditions. N. I. Zakrevskiy with citizens of Sevastopol  survived the «plague» in 1830, and participated in important strategic sea voyages in the Mediterranean warships such as «Erivan», «The Standard». During 20 years he worked as a town doctor, he was active involved  in the formation of seamen, He contributed a lot to the Sevastopol naval library, where in 1833 he was working as a librarian.  The results of the study will allow to expand the historiographical base of Crimean Studies. Unfortunately, in the memoirs of N. I. Zakrevskiy there are no episodes that describe the progress of the Crimean  War, the first defense of Sevastopol 1854-1855. Without this information it is impossible to recreate the  memories of author’s life. In addition, the continuation of the memoirs could be an important source for the  history of Sevastopol during the Crimean War. Thus, the notes of urban military doctor N. I. Zakrevskiy are  limited by description of the city, its residents, the Navy only in 1830.

Prokhorova T. A.
The notes by Lady resident near the Alma: The South-Western Crimea in the  work of the anonymous author
Because of the Crimean War (1853–1856) the interest to the Crimean history was increasing. It was the  time when some new historical sources appeared. The writing of anonymous author, devoted to the description  of the peninsula in 1840-s, was one of them. The references of that work are traced in scientific journals and  indexes of XIX–XXI centuries. The assumptions about the authorship of the work were made. It is suggested  that the notes could be written by Mrs. Andrew Neilson who was wife of sultana Anne Neilson’s brother from  Edinburg. But it is still possible that it was some generalized character of Crimean writer. Mrs. Neilson spent  9 years in the Crimea and learned a lot about the peninsula. She wrote about visits made to the Crimean villages and cities by her, including Inkerman and Sevastopol. The extracts, consisted the information about  South-Western Crimea, were analyzed. Mrs. Andrew Neilson paid attention to local antiquities. Chersonese is
described as ruined city, Inkerman as «cave city» and Balaclava as Greek city with Genoese fortress. The  Notes are special by form and description. They were not written day by day, it is conclusive work of living in  the Crimea. The notes of Lady are not new for the Crimean historians, but they still need to be translated from  English. The new evidence of the anonymous author may be used in the reconstruction of the historical processes that have taken place in the Crimea in the XIX century.

Molochko Ye.V.
Sources of on the history popularization cultural heritage of Crimea (XIX - early  XX century)
Comprehensive study of a representative body of published (periodicals, scientific and popular publications, guidebooks) and archival sources (central, departmental and local funds archives of Ukraine and the  Russian Federation) can objectively reconstruct a comprehensive picture of the development and popularization of the genesis of certain monuments in the Crimea ethnographers, NGOs and educational institutions, to  evaluate various forms of their activities. Strengthening of interest in the study and protection of historical and  cultural monuments of the Crimea in the analyzed period, conditional on the need to eliminate information  vacuum on the peninsula that has existed since the time of the Crimean Khanate. In periodicals published material that was covered up excursion practice and formed an idea about the importance of excursions in the  study and preservation of cultural heritage. Specialized tours and tourist magazines ever published reports  about trips, lists of recommended regional literature, detailed information about attractions. One of the goals  of this work was the publication of reports on the activities of scientific societies with descriptions of historical  monuments and archeology. Analysis of large volume, content-popularizes heritage ethnographers to determine its relevance to the modern stage highlight the practical importance of these studies for further development monument research across all of Ukraine.

Seitmemetova S. A.
Central and Provincial Russian Periodic Press in Ismail Gasprinsky’s Personal   Collection of Periodicals 
This research is attempted to systematize Ismail Gasprinsky's personal collection of periodicals. The  study involves educator's editorial work, I. Gasprinsky's personal collection of periodicals due to which the  editor of the newspaper «Terdjiman» published the chronicle of everyday life and international news in his  edition. Material for internal news for the newspaper was written with the assistance of the leading press of the  Russian Empire, which received a boost after the reforms of the 60 – 70's of 19 century. The chronological  framework of this research covers the period from 1883 to 1905. It was the time of publication of the first  bilingual Crimean Tatar periodical – the newspaper «Terdjiman», before turning into a daily edition, published  only in Crimean Tatar. Sourcebase of the research is a set of information notes and reprints, placed in the section «Vnutrenniye izvastiya» («Internal News»), «Razniye vesti» («Miscellaneous News»). However, due to  incomplete set of newspaper «Terdjiman» stored in collection of the Memorial Museum of I.Gasprinsky, the  main goal was to select periodicals which were the most frequently mentioned by I.Gasprinsky. Among such  publications for the research was selected the following: the leading government periodicals of capital, reprinted in «Terdjiman», as well as the leading provincial press of Kazan, Ufa, Orenburg, Tashkent. The materials of these periodicals were reprinted by I. Gasprinsky more often than other publications. In the result, the  following periodicals were chosen as the main objects: capital – «Birjeviye vedomosti», «Pravitelstveniy vestnik», «Moskovskiye vedomosti», «Novoye vremya», «Novosti», «Moskovskiy listok, «Svet», «Ruskiye vedomosti», «Ruskiy vestnik», provincial – «Voljskiy vestnik», «Vostochnoye obozreniye», «Kavkaz», «Kazanskiy listok», «Kaspiy»; local – «Krim», «Sevastopolskiy listok», «Yalta». The funds of Memorial Museum of  Ismail Gasprinsky, where only part of Tatar periodicals included in the personal collection of periodicals of  I.Gasprinsky was saved, were also researched. The development of Russian periodicals of that time and its  growth in the late 19 – early 20 centuries had an enormous impact on the social and cultural life of the country. Russian periodic press is extremely important in the formation and functioning of the «Terdjiman». The  material reprinted from Russian newspapers is important, because it informed the readers about the life of  Muslims, not only in Russia but the whole world. It introduced Muslims of Crimea with their problems and  successes of their counterparts living not only in their country, but in foreign countries as well.

Seitova E. I.
The social adaptation of resettlers in Crimea (1965–1976)
The main component for measuring the consolidation of the settlers in Crimea was the effective implementation of a social adaption program. It, first of all, included the building of houses for newcomers, infrastructure expansion, credit, and the attention to needs and problems of the new settlers. They cared about organizing the arrival of people and safely moving them into new houses. But there were still many problems.  For example, some people did not fully carry out their functions. There were technological violations of constructing houses for the settlers. And there were cases of inappropriate uses of housing. But despite it all, the  process of economic and housing arrangements for the arriving population rose to a better level within this  period. Immigrants settled in new houses. They were hooked up to electricity, water pipes were laid. Schools,  kindergartens were under construction. The settlers were able to use state credits, and they received preferential prices on food. As a result of these measures, the absolute majority of the population arrived and were  settled in an orderly fashion in the region

Serova K. D.
Domestic trade in the Crimea during the second half of XIX – at the beginning of XX  centuries: organization and control
Effective operation of internal trade, like any system, independent of the mechanism of coordinated work organization and control of the sales process.  Despite the active modernization of the legislation of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX  century, special system of commercial law did not exist. There were only a few trade laws.  Legislative provisions of the trading process are contained in the numerous laws of the Russian Empire.  Among them «The commercial charter», «The credit charter», «The charter of trading justice» and others.  One of the main instruments of commercial law at the end of XIX century was «The position of the state  tax on trade» June 8, 1898.  The activities of commercial and industrial facilities, as well as self-employed, it becomes subject to this  law. It will significantly increase taxes for the treasury.  The legislation of the Russian Empire set the overall direction of the trading areas of the state. The direct  sales organization and regulation of the process involved in local government, the police and the Exchequer of  province.  Dumas and councils were obliged to contribute to the development of local trade and industry, to establish markets a The city dumas and council determined rules and procedures for the operation of trade in a particular city.  The institutional mechanism of domestic trade in the Crimea consisted of several levels. The state level  defined the general vector of development of trade and economic activity. The local level set the main features  and coordinates the functioning of trade in a particular place: in the city, in township, in village.  In this way, the organizational and control system is balanced served as control of the sales process in the  Crimea during the second half of XIX – early XX centuries.

Sokolov A. A.
Monuments of historic and cultural Crimea: destruction, protection, restoration  (1944–1953) 
In the article the problem issues of cultural and historical monuments in the Crimea. On a wide range of  published and archival sources revealed the development of the state system of protection of monuments. The  reasons and specific examples of destruction of monuments. Special attention is paid to the facts of deliberate  destruction of monuments. Shows the effect of general economic dislocation poslevonnyh first years on the  state and the protection of monuments. Great importance is given, the analysis of both positive and negative  strontium existing law. Proved the inefficiency of government regulations. In particular, when addressing the  rental use of monuments. Demonstrated, the barriers between the issues in the protection of cultural heritage.  Weakness of local authorities and decision-makers. The examples of the irresponsible attitude of the local  authorities to the fate of specific sites. Discusses the measures taken for the protection of monuments. Few are  blessed restoration and konservtsii. Points to errors in their organization and conduct. Lessons learned and the  general characteristic of the development of business sites in the period.

Khayruddinova E. M.
Muslim Congress in the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (1923 – 1925)
The article describes the activities of Muslims Congress in the Crimea in 1923–1925 years. Congress of Muslims have played important role in the life of the Crimean Tatars. During the Soviet authorities in Crimea  have been three of the Congress: 15 January 1923, 1–5 September 1924, 1–6 December 1925. At the Congress  considered religious, national, social and political problems. In the 1920-s years the main problem of muslims  was to preserve the traditional Muslim institutions: Maale (religious communities), mosques, religious schools  (mekteb) and madrassas, vakufs. At the first congress was re-established management religious institute. The  article considers the activities of the Congress of Muslims of Crimea 1923–1925 years. The analysis of  documents Congresses. Illuminated circle of the issues and policies of the Soviet government towards  Muslims.  The time of the Congress of Muslims in line first phase of church-state relations in the region. For him, it  was characterized by a wide partnership of government and clergy. Cooperation is manifested in the activities  of congresses Muslim clergy and the faithful, the activity of the progressives.  A review of activities of the Congress of Muslims of Crimea in the development of Muslim religious  control of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic by three phases: 1922–1923 – period of  formation and legal registration, 1923–1925 – improving the management structure; 1925–1928 – shutdown  and liquidation.