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Vol. 27 (66) № 1. 2014
Historical Science

 

Akimchenkov V. V.
Formation and development of Interschool museum of local history E. N. Oven in Sevastopol
Process of creation and functioning of Interschool museum of local lore of E. N. Oven is considered.The museum was open on December 18, 1968 at the Children's excursion and tourist station. Originallythe exposition of the museum included eight sections: historical, stories of national education, nature,industry, etc. It is shown the main achievements of the museum: assignment in 1981 of a rank "National",in 2010 the winner of the city forum "Public recognition", in 2011 – ranks "The model museum".In 2002 the museum was moved to the new building because of what many expositions had to be curtailed.The updated museum was presented in 4 halls: "Inanimate nature", "Black Sea" and "Wildlife". Itis in detail told about process of collecting by the staff of institution of a unique collection of the documentsand photos devoted to the Sevastopol museum of study of local lore. It is analyses versatile activityof the museum: cultural and educational, educational and research.

Kalinovsky V. V.
To the question of the sources on church local-history studies of Crimea
We considered the main group of sources on the local history of the church as a part of Crimean studies.There were emphasized the main types of materials on the problem: the official documentation, works ofclerics, periodicals and sources of personal origin. The principal authors of historical works among the clergywere named, and the profile subjects of their research were defined. The sources for the determination of theparticipation of the clergy in the leading scientific organizations – the Odessa Society of History andAntiquities and Taurida Scientific Archive Commission were discussed. We noted the importance of religiousand secular periodicals, including "Taurida Diocesan News" and "Taurida church-public messenger." Themagnitude of the source base related to the activities of the outstanding hierarch - Archbishop Innocent(Borisov) was shown. In particular, we looked at the richest collection of documents of the church lord in thecollections of the Manuscript Department of the National Library. The epistolary heritage of the CrimeanOrthodox clergy remains the least known and available to researchers as a historical source. A briefdescription of the leading archive collections of the Crimea and the Russian Federation was given. There werescheduled the prospects for further research.

Karmazina N.V.
XIII Archaeological congress in Ekaterinoslav: developing a comprehensive research program of the cultural heritage of the South of Russia
In the article the influence of XIII Archaeological Congress in Ekaterinoslav in 1905 on the developmentof monument research in Southern Russia is determined. On the basis of the published materials of this scientificforum, the preparatory work is represented, within which are shown measures aimed at researching, preservationand promotion of antiquities. The reports and the speeches of the Congress directed at issues of studyand protection of the cultural heritage of the Northern Black See and the Crimea are analyzed. The importanceof the Congress of the archaeological study for preservation of antiquities of the South of Russia is shown. Themeaning of antiquity popularization is shared in frames of the exhibition, organized within the scientific forum.The represented articles from private collections, the lates findings are described. The importance of theArchaeological Congress materials for studying of historical development of monument study on the South ofRussia is generalized.The article focuses on the fact that one of the reasons, which caused the demand of convening of ArchaeologicalCongress was concern about condition and anxiety about antiquity preservation on a higher level.Scientific research, monument popularization are required for the development of the cultural heritage protectionsystem. Congress contributed to the development of the theory of archeology, the definition of its subjectmatter, methodology and plan of archaeological excavations, the accumulation and synthesis of scientific material.

Kravchuk A. S.
Feodosia in the report of town governor Pavel Vasilevich Gajewski
On the basis of the report of Feodosia town governor P. V. Gajewski found in the State Archives of theOdessa Region, shows the position one of the city government Tauridа province the first half of the XIX cen tury. Feodosia in the first quarter of the XIX century are far from being the best of times. Sunset era Kafa withher slave markets. Port lost strategic importance, giving the palm Odessa. Despite all the attempts of the governmentto revive the trade in the city, Feodosius remained a small provincial town. To revive its former valuewas established here gradonachalstva, which existed from October 8, 1802 by September 1, 1837. The towngovernor had almost the same functions as the civil governor. The freedom of action of these officials oftenled to serious abuses. An example is Feodosia. P. V. Gajewski, making the review entrusted to him by administrativeunit, pointed to numerous violations in the work of government.Pavel Gajewski was born April 15, 1775 in the province of Poltava. In 1792 he graduated from the cadetcorps and as an aide to Rear Admiral A. N. Senyavin served on the boat, «Peter», took part in the fightingagainst the French in the Mediterranean. Was a member of the storming of the island Vado in 1812 consistedcommander of the ship «Galeta» and adjutant Admiral V. P. Dezen, led by the office of the Chief of the Moldavianarmy A. A. Prozorovskiy. On June 22, 1815 was the head of the third branch of the Department ofState Property. From 1st May 1820 was appointed Managing Kyiv share customs, and from January 10, 1821he was appointed manager of Feodosia share customs. Feodosia was appointed town governor from December18, 1821 on July 8, 1822. P. V. Gajewski involved improving quarantine established safety committees. Suchmeasures have been caused by the need to prevent the introduction of plague in the city. After he resigned astown governor, again led the customs, where he continued to serve until his death April 8, 1853 He served astown governor in 1829, the name of Gajewski in Feodosia was named one of the streets (now 8 Marta Street)and an ancient fountain (crossing the streets March 8 and Chapaev). Buried P. V. Gajewski in the family vaultin the old Russian cemetery in Feodosia.Newfound town governor met serious violations of the magistrate, the office of the mayor, according topolice units. Exterior view of the city is poor: the streets were not cleaned, there was a shortage of drinkingwater, the city flooded tramps. Manufactured buildings did not meet the urban plan. These and many otherproblems require urgent solutions. Despite all the efforts of P. V. Gajewski and receiver A. I. Kaznacheev.Feodosia remained a small port town.

Martsynovsky P. N.
Modern historiography of the coal industry of Donbass late XIX – early XX century
Article is devoted to the analysis of ukrainian historiography of the coal industry of Donbass late XIX –early XX century. Typical features and peculiarities of historiography are determined, methodological foundationsare determined and chronological borders of the researches are marked. A critical review of selectedhistoriographical works is made. Typical approaches to coverage of problematic issues are represented. Themethodological principles of research are considered. The coal industry is an important part of large-scalechain of commodity-monetary reforms in general, but for Ukraine it has always played a special role. This isdue to the fact that heavy industry, in addition to its exceptional economic importance, is also obvious determiningof the social content. The history of the coal industry is full of episodes, the interpretation of whichdepends on the worldview and methodological training of researchers. Therefore, a retrospective review of thehistoriography of coal acquires relevance. The theme of industrial development of the Donetsk region of XIX– early XX century in this period was displayed in an overview of general works of Ukrainian researcherssocio-economic development of the state. Scientists have established the influence of world events on thedevelopment of the industry, proved genetic relationship of modernization processes and progressive changeon a regional scale. The need to recreate the past which was outlined with new methodological horizons, inspiredthe research work of scientists involved in the work of local history. Thus, research on the history of thecoal industry are continuing, and the historiography of the Donetsk – Pridneprovsk economic region developsin the direction of the specification of works.

Pasechnikov I. A.
Bodies of the political police of Taurida governorate in the late 50's – early 60-ies of the XIX century
The article examines the organization and activities of the gendarmerie of Taurida Governorate in the inthe period from 1856 to 1865. Special attention was paid to the reasons, which changed its structure after theCrimean War. The staff of the political police had been represented. The most vivid episodes of participationof the political police in maintaining the public order had been selected. The struggle against the spread ofsectarian ideas, the prosecution of counterfeiters, ensuring the safety of members of the imperial family andstruggle against the peasant unrest had been analyzed. The activities on the eve of the reform of the politicalpolice of the Russian Empire in 1867 have been separately marked. An attempt to determine the role of thegendarmerie in the historical process in the Crimea and Northern Tavria was made. The Special Corps ofGendarmes was the uniformed security police of the Russian Empire in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Itsmain responsibilities were law enforcement and state security. The responsibilities of the Gendarmes alsoincluded the execution of court orders, pursuit of fugitives, riot control, and detainment of «unusual» criminals.Gendarmes could also be assigned to assist local police and officials. Following the 1825 revolt, the newtsar, Nicholas I, created the office of the Chief of Gendarmes in July 1826 and appointed General Count AlexanderBenkendorf to it; all of the Gendarmes were subordinate to the Chief. Benkendorf was also appointedExecutive Director of the newly created Third Section of the Imperial Chancellery, although the office of theHead of the Third Section was not formally merged with Chief of Gendarmes until 1839. In 1827, the Gendarmeriewas transformed into the Special Corps of Gendarmes, under the Chief of Gendarmes. The Commanderof the Corps and Chief of Staff of the Corps were also Directors of the Third Section under the ExecutiveDirector. The Corps was divided into seven territorial Districts, six of them located in Russia and one inthe Kingdom of Poland, each having a Directorate. The Main Directorate, along with additional GubernialDirectorates, was also created. In the article the little-known sources and archival documents had been used.

Seyt-Mametov Sh. E.
Akdes Nimet Kurat – researcher of the sourses on the history of the Crimean Khanate in the Ottoman arcives
The Palace Museum Topkap? (Topkap? Saray? Müzesi) – public institution subordinated to the Ministryof Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey. In the second half of XV – first half of XIX century it wasthe residence of the Ottoman sultans. Today its walls keep unique archival collections, many of which aresources in the history of Crimea in Medieval era.The article discusses the work of the historian-orientalist - Akdes Nimet Kurat. The results of his manyyears of research A. N. Kurat for a long time passed for numerous students. The article characterized one ofthe works, which is a fundamental research on rare sources on the history of medieval Turkic-Tatar statesstored in the palace of the Ottoman Sultans in Istanbul - "Topkap? Saray Müzesi Arsivindeki Alt?n ordu, K?r?mve Türkistan hanlar?na ait yarl?k ve bitikler ".Thanks to the work of researcher, we have the opportunity to meet with some of the earliest sources onthe history of the Crimean Khanate.Much of the document is of unique importance for the history of the Black Sea region as a whole. In particular,the archive and the library of the museum kept the original letters to the court of the Sultan of the Crimeankhans and nobles.

Memoria

Moiseyenkova L. S.
Professor Sekirinskiy S.A. (1914–1990). Dedicated to 100th anniversary of the birth
This article is dedicated to life and scientific and teaching work of a remarkable Crimean scholar,university professor Sekirinskiy S. A., who dedicated 50 years of his life to the Crimean Pedagogical Instituteand afterwards to the Simferopol State University. He was a talented lecturer and populariser of science, amediaevalist, who published more than 60 research papers, professional in the field of Genoese colonies in theCrimea and agricultural history in Northern Taurida. Sekirinskiy S. A. held the position of History DepartmentChair and for many he was in charge of the Department of Ancient World and Middle Ages.

Reviews.

Nepomnyashchy А. A.
Vulgar Historiography of Studying of the Crimea: Review on the book: Pashchena V. N. Historiography of studying of the Crimea
Analyzed attempt V. N. Pashchena to present a sketch of the Crimean historiography. Reviewed the conceptof the author. Made the conclusion about the discrepancy between the title and the content of the book,about the vulgarization them a scientific approach to history of studying of the Crimea. Called numerous factualand conceptual V. N. Pashchena’s errors. It is proved that the book is a conglomeration of facts on theCrimean history, some of it didn't related. Absent of reliance on the sources on the history of studying of theCrimea, the ignorance of the author of the historiography of the question led him to the creation of a vulgararianta Crimean historiography.