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Vol. 27 (66) № 2. 2014
Historical Science

 

Avseneva S. N.
The Crimea through the eyes of travelers of the XIX century: New passages from travel notes of Janos Karoly Besh
The addition of the Crimea to Russia toward the end of the 18th century opened a new wave of interest onthe part of both the Russian and Western-European public who sought to get acquainted with the region and itshistory. The number of those wishing to visit the mysterious peninsula gradually increased and by the secondquarter of the 19th century visitors to the Crimea were wide in scope. Many of the travelers were a part of theintellectual elite; however their travels did not always have a focused agenda. The Crimea was also visited bypeople who did not plan a detailed scientific study of the region. In addition to the various types of formal andofficial visits, and scientific expeditions, a substantial amount of cultural and aesthetic voyages were undertakenwith the intent discovering inspiration, performing missionary trips, or simply tourism. This article presentsthe author's translation and analysis of the travel notes’ passages of Janos Karoly Besh, a Hungarianexplorer who traveled throughout the Crimean for his ethnographic expedition from 1829 to 1830. His workcontains descriptions of many towns and villages throughout the peninsula. The analysis includes a scientificcomment on the work and illustrates the value of traveler’s notes as a historical source on the history of theCrimea.

Aliyev R. D.
Consequences of emigration of crimean tatars in the 60-s of the 19th century: statement of the problem
The author researchs a wide range of consequences of migration movement in the Crimean region in thecontext of the Crimean Tatar migrations in the 60-s of the 19th century. The article touches upon the economic,demographic and cultural development of the peninsula and its habitants.Emigration movement of Crimean Tatars began at the end of the 19th century, when Crimea became apart of the Russian Empire. The largest peak of this movement was reached at the beginning of the 1860s. Atthis time a significant part of the Crimean Tatar population left their homeland and migrated to the territoriesof the Ottoman Empire.Mass emigration of the indigenous population of Crimea fundamentally influenced on many spheres oflife in the region. Decline of agriculture and labor shortages in practically all territory of Crimea was one ofthe first results of the mass migration of Crimean Tatar population. The utter devastation of the region, especiallyits central and northern parts, was found out some time after the mass migrations from Crimea.Mass emigration influenced not only on the development of economy and demography of the Crimeanregion, but also on the fate of migrants and their compatriots who remained in their native land.The subsequent fate of emigrating Crimean Tatars was very diverse. Some of them didn’t migrate to newterritories because of their death on the sea route from the Crimea. Many of migrants became ravaged andimpoverished because of exile. As a result some of emigrants returned empty-handed back to their homeland.

Dmytruk S. A.
Assistance of Czechoslovak Republic to the Czechs of Ukrainian South in the beginning 20th XX cent. (according to documents of National archive of Czech Republic in Prague)
Problems of material and food aid to Czechs of Ukrainian South organized by Czechoslovakia in the beginning20th XX cent. are considering in the article. Organization of Czechoslovakian trade-industrial missionand functioning of Czechoslovakian committee of aid to starving in Ukraine.

Zadereychuk A. A.
To the history of creation and activity of the «Dnepr department of emperor's society of reproduction of hunting and commercial animals and correct hunt»
The article is devoted to history of creation and activity of the «Dnepr department of emperor's society ofreproduction of hunting and commercial animals and correct hunt». Historiography of a problem is analyzedand basic sources are named. The special attention is paid to the structure and leadership of this organization.It is defined that composition of society was heterogeneous, plugging in itself mainly all representatives oflarge landownership of the Tavricheskaya province. The quantity of members of society remained practicallyunchanging during all period of existence of the Dnepr department of hunt. In addition the territorial parcels ofland belonging to the society and control order are educed. Concrete tasks that were laid on the managers ofareas and also their role in a fight against poaching on the territory belonging to the Department are shown.Primary purposes and tasks of society and also the real ways of their realization by the members of the Dneprdepartment of hunt are marked. It is pointed on the existence of strict regulations in regard to a hunt workedoutwith taking into account of regional features.The activity of a leadership of the society in regard to organization and realization of public hunts andsporting shootings is analysed in the article. The ways of forming of prize funds are described. The features ofpassing of annual hunting conventions in the estate of a leader of the Department Chernomorye are illustrated.On the whole the information about history of creation and activity of sport-hunting club on the territory ofTavricheskaya province are generalized here.

Kravchuk A. S.
The corps of Taurida governors in the first part of XIX century
Approach in the selection of officials for the post of governor is extremely important. The study of thisprocess will help in understanding the reasons for the rapid development of the southern Russian Empire. Oneof the most important sources of information for this study are the official lists of governors. This source categoryincludes information about the major milestones of career civil servants, their social background, religion,rank, stay on vacation or retirement, marital status, being under court or collecting penalties, rewards,promotions and reprimand, participation in military campaigns, property status. In the period under study -from the creation of the province in October 8, 1802 and before the start of the Crimean War in1853-1856.The position of the governor took 11 people.During the reign of Alexander I, most of the officials held Patriotic War of 1812, and after 1815 it wasnominated from among the war scooped footage of the government apparatus. These formulary lists show thatmilitary service was considered virtually a prerequisite for a class of high civic positions. Under Nicholas I,taken a course on the "militarization" of governors, and in 1837 people with military officials already occupyabout a third of governorships.Governors received higher education is necessary to note a few. G. P. Miloradovich studied at the Universityof Königsberg, Göttingen, Strasbourg and Paris. A. M. Borozdin graduated from Cambridge University.High education Taurida governor noted all his contemporaries. V. Y. Roslavetz studied at Moscow universityboarding school and a short time at the university, because of the difficult financial situation had tostart service in the Ministry of Education.From 11 leaders of the Taurida province study period 3 began service in the civil department, and the restin the military. Five governors until his appointment held positions that allowed them to some extent to meetwith the Crimean affairs.The analysis shows that the trends in the Taurida province corresponded empire-wide. Continued to existin the practice of appointing as governor of people who do not have administrative experience. Level of educationgovernors left much to be desired. Among all the governors of Taurida study period there were no witha legal background. It is the study of jurisprudence was considered optimal for officials occupying senior administrativepositions.
In the Taurida province was not sent to any revision of the Senate, said that in the province have been noserious violations, and the central government distrusted Taurida governors in the study period.Feature of the higher administrative positions in the Taurida province was that some of the governorsconsider staying in the Crimea as a job at the final stage of his life, the other as a step on the career ladder.Most of the governors were on average younger than the national average.

Martsynovsky P. N.
Modern historiography of the coal industry of Donbass (the soviet period)
In the article the critical survey of ukrainian historiography of the coal industry of Donbass of the sovietperiod is conducted. The main directions of the research work are defined. The analysis of the general provisionsand findings of historians is made. The modern historiographical description of coal mines in Donetsk,Luhansk and Dnipropetrovsk regions (1917–1991) is considered. The influence of political, ideological, organizational,administrative and economic factors on the development of modern ukrainian historiography ofthe region is noted. Ukraine's coal industry, the leading sector of the fuel and energy complex, represented byenterprises of Donetsk, Lviv-Volyn coal and Dnieper lignite basin. Study of the history of coal mining in the
Donetsk, Luhansk and Dnipropetrovsk regions, as well as analysis of the most problems of the coal industry,followed by the identification of promising directions of development of the latter remain relevant for a longperiod. The object of this study – actual problems of modern ukrainian historiography Donbass coal industryof the soviet period, the subject – the study of the post-soviet period, the study of the history of industrial developmentof Ukraine. Chronologically, the study is limited to the years 1991–2013. In the 90-ies of the XXcentury the revival of Ukrainian historical science began. Interest in previously closed to researchers topicsincreased. So it becomes a historical necessity to study the complex political and social phenomenon – Stalinismand its manifestations in the field of industrial production. The study of this topic in Ukrainian historiographyof coal industry of Donbass can safely be called innovation: first, because of the limited problem elaboration,secondly, on the ground that the researchers had revised cognitive schemes of the study the issue. Wecan identify several topics, the development of which was initiated or intensified for the first time since 1991,under the direct influence of political, ideological, organizational, economic and administrative factors: 1)repression in the coal industry in the 20s-30s. XX century, the mechanism of the punitive apparatus; 2) thesocialist reconstruction of the coal industry of Donbass as part of the modernization of the country; 3) TheGreat Patriotic War in the history of the Donbass and the recovery of the coal industry in the postwar period.

Parafilo D. M.
Book rarities «Kara-Bitikligi»: the experience of reconstruction of the example of the «List of M. S. Sarach»
In the first time on the basis of a synthesis of unknown archival and published sources, the picture is restoredreconstruction of the book and manuscript collection «Kara-Bitikligi» for example, «List of M SSarach. The first period in the history library from 1916 to 1920 years, associated with the names of the firsttwo custodians M. J. Firkovich and S. S. El'yashevich - representatives Karaite intellectuals of the late 19thcentury, early 20th century. It was thanks their diligence has been working on the primary part private collectionsin cataloging, admitted to «Kara-Bitikligi» Published archival documents on the history of the Karaitecommunity in the XIX century.One of the directions of scientific work S. S. El'yashevich was compiling inventories of private collections,the library received from philanthropists. S. S. El'yashevich was inventory the private collection of M S.Sarach received books, which is currently stored in the funds Evpatorian Regional Museum. Handwritten listoriginally included 19 sheets, 408 rooms describing 440 books. To date, survived 18 sheets. Not enough sheetnumber 6 and Room 119 on the list with 168 Accordingly it is possible to trace the description of 390 books of440 Inventory drawn up in three columns. The first indicates the number of volumes in the second number ofvolumes in the third summarizes the bibliographic information (author's name, place and year of publication,notes).Thematically «List M S Sarach» can be divided into six parts. The first part consists of religious literatureis 131 - 33% of the total number of books, correspond to the numbers from 1 to 118 and 169 – 175. The secondpart of the list presented by Jewish magazines «HaAsmal», «Ha heif», «Ha Yasir». The third part includesessays on the history of the Karaites, Jewish and world history. A total of 48 volumes, 12% of the total numberof publications, with 192 rooms on 238.The fifth part - dictionaries, manuals, books on Jewish and Karaitegrammar, translations into Russian Karaites dogmatic books, handwritten essays. A total of 38 volumes, 10%of the total number of books on the list of numbers from 373 to 418 The fourth part is displayed Jewish secularliterature, are novels, poems, translations of other authors into Hebrew. Total of 152 volumes, 39% of the totalnumber of publications on the list of numbers from 239 to 372

Pasechnikov I. A.
The gendarmerie of Taurida governorate in the first half of the XIX century
The article examines the organization and activities of the gendarmerie of Taurida Governorate in thefirst half of the XIX century. Special attention was paid to the reasons of the formation of the firstgendarme units on the Crimean peninsula. The structure of the gendarmerie throughout the State and theTauride province in particular had been analyzed. The staff of the political police and it financing had beenrepresented. The requirements for candidates to serve in the Corps of Gendarmes had been identified. Themost vivid episodes of participation of the political police in maintaining the public order had beenselected. The activities on the eve of the Crimean War 1853-1856 have been separately marked. An attemptto determine the role of the gendarmerie in the historical process in the Crimea and Northern Tavria wasmade. The Special Corps of Gendarmes was the uniformed security police of the Russian Empire in the19th and early 20th centuries. Its main responsibilities were law enforcement and state security. Theresponsibilities of the Gendarmes also included the execution of court orders, pursuit of fugitives, riotcontrol, and detainment of «unusual» criminals. Gendarmes could also be assigned to assist local police andofficials. Following the 1825 revolt, the new tsar, Nicholas I, created the office of the Chief of Gendarmesin July 1826 and appointed General Count Alexander Benkendorf to it; all of the Gendarmes weresubordinate to the Chief. Benkendorf was also appointed Executive Director of the newly created ThirdSection of the Imperial Chancellery, although the office of the Head of the Third Section was not formallymerged with Chief of Gendarmes until 1839. In 1827, the Gendarmerie was transformed into the SpecialCorps of Gendarmes, under the Chief of Gendarmes. The Commander of the Corps and Chief of Staff ofthe Corps were also Directors of the Third Section under the Executive Director. The Corps was dividedinto seven territorial Districts, six of them located in Russia and one in the Kingdom of Poland, each havinga Directorate. The Main Directorate, along with additional Gubernial Directorates, was also created. In thearticle the little-known sources and archival documents had been used.

Reviews

Kalinovsky V. V.
Not better for yourself, my friend, turn...: reply to a review of N. I. Hrapunov
The article is a response to the biased and incompetent review to the monograph of Vladimir Kalinovsky,by N. I. Hrapunov, an employee of Institute of Oriental Studies (Simferopol). The reviewer, not being anexpert in the church history, is trying to criticize the book’s shortcomings, mostly imaginary, in an instructivetone. The answer justifies the inappropriateness of such an approach. The desire of the reviewer to try tocriticize the monograph once again has the opposite effect – N. I. Hrapunov demonstrates his ignorance of therules of spelling of the Russian language and a complete lack of knowledge about church terminology.Devising a research questions independently of the author, Nikita Igorevich "successfully" justifies theirinsolvency. Claims that V. Kalinovsky ignores references to the notes of the British travelers to the Crimea, onthe translation of which the reviewer has spent quite a few years (and by no way related to the church localstudies of Crimea) are apparently bordered with the desire of self-promotion. Mentioning the lack of theGerman translation of the Yekaterinburg researcher A. I. Romanchuk among the references, while thereference to the original Russian text of her work is present, is especially hilarious. Accusations towardsmonograph illustrations, presented by a co-author of "A Shirt History of Crimea", known for numerous errors,look anecdotically. In conclusion there were presented a list of reviews of the monograph V. Kalinovsky.

Ruev V. L.
Once again about the sources of the problems and history by the Ottoman possessions in the rimea. Review of dissertation research of O. M. Kournikova "Documentary sources for the history of the ttoman possessions in the Crimea in the XVI – XVIII century"
The dissertation research of O. M. Kournikova "Documentary sources for the history of the Ottomanossessions in the Crimea in the XVI – XVIII century" was analyzed. The structure of the work wasonsistently revealed. The periodization of the Ottoman possessions in the Crimea looks inappropriate. Aissertation defines that it ended in 1783 year, although the Ottomans left the peninsula in 1774. Thegnorance of O.M. Kournikova in historiography questions seems problematic. She mentions the works, notelated to the topic of research, and ignores the significant body of Russian literature of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. So she refers to the compilation work A. R. Andreev, unrelated to the Ottoman presence in theCrimea, but misses recognized experts’ monographs on the issue. The approach to a dissertation paper sourcess equally strange. It uses only well-known and published documents, including text materials not related tohe subject. Turkish archives with their rich sources were only mentioned, but in no way used. From time toime O.M. Kournikova loses the thread of the narrative and switches to arbitrary questions of history. Thehird chapter of the dissertation "The Ottoman possessions in the territory of the Crimean Peninsula in the XVI XVIII c.", is based only on seven sources. The population figures of Crimean settlements, particularlyangup, given be the researcher, are far from reality. The conclusion of the insolvency of a number ofositions proposed by the author of the dissertation, and the possibility of using the dissertation findings incientific practice, was made.

Chic N. V.
The visible reference point of selfless activity for contemporaries
Is carried out the analysis of the monograph of V. V. Akimchenkov «Academy in a miniature»: Sevastopoluseum of study of local lore (1923–1939)". The author managed in detail, to characterize by means ofhe detailed story about separately taken museum establishment tendencies of development of study of localore in the 20–30th years of the XX century in the territory of Crimean the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
On pages of the book constructed by the ocherkovy principle, plots from the general history of developmentf a krymovedeniye received full lighting. Work is written easily, but not work on its creation was aung. It is visible from the richest scientific and help, illustrative device and istochnikovy base of research. Aasis – documents of the most different archives of Moscow, St. Petersburg, Sevastopol and Simferopol. In theonograph the results of activity of actually whole generation of the local historians of Sevastopol who wereorking at different level and carrying out different research tasks are summed up. For the first time in a historiographyhe scientific heritage, both the Museum of study of local lore, and his most noticeable employees isnalysed.