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Vol. 27 (66) № 4. 2014
Historical Science

 

Andreeva L. U.
Epistolary heritage of academic painting N. Samokish: letters I. Shapoval (1930–1935)
Reviewed and analyzed unknown letters employee Dnepropetrovsk historical museum I. Shapoval toAcademician N. Samokish. First introduced in the scientific revolution 13 letters I. Shapoval, clearly showingthe nature of communication and creative intelligence activities in the 30-ies. XX century. from the environmentof the artist. An academician of painting N. Samokish significant part of its work devoted historical issues.We have already demonstrated a significant impact on the creation of paintings related to the history ofCossacks, a prominent scientist, academician D. Yavornytsky (1855–1940). Thanks to close cooperation andfriendship between the two academics have seen the light such famous paintings as «Fight the Cossacks withwinged Hussars at Yellow Waters, 1648», «Boarding Turkish galleys», «Fight Ivan Bohun under Monastyryshche,1653» (1931), «Mutiny on the Host «(1932), «Hike the Cossacks to the Crimea», «Battle ofTsarichanka, 1709» (1932). Presented correspondence clearly showed what an important role he played at themuseum. I. Shapoval controlled and timely informed N. Samokish sending correspondence about getting canvases,sketches and paintings of various parcels of the discussions at the Scientific Council of the museum.This communication helps artists and allowed to be constantly aware of the events taking place far outside ofSimferopol, where he lived at the time. Subsequently I. Shapoval became a famous scholar and writer, authorof works devoted to the life and work of D. Yavornitsky.

Gankewich V. Y.
Hunting and fowler in Askaniya-Nova in the first half of the XIX century
The article is devoted to the scantily explored plot from the history of worldwide known reserveAskaniya-Nova. On the basis of memories and records of contemporaries of events the natural features ofaskaniya steppe in a so-called pre-phaltsphein period (1828-1856) are opened up. The description of a varietyof representatives of steppe region fauna of the south of Russian empire is given. The behaviourial features ofrepresentatives of the world of birds on askaniya spaces are described. The specifics of nature-using by thelords of the estate in the first half of the XIX century is pointed out.
The existence of special laws in angalt colony regulating time of hunt of different types of steppe animalworld is noted in the article. Descriptions of the separate hunts taking place in Tavriya steppes in a stated periodare given, some participants are named, their memories and impressions are adduced. The activity of angaltcolony administration directed to forming of ornithological collection of Angalt-Keten principality is alsoconsidered in this work.

Zadereichuk I. Р.
Charity of Germans of the Crimea during military operations of the Russian Empire in the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century
During studying participation of the German population of the Crimea in assistance to the state in the periodof various military operations is opened. Activities of Germans for granting food, creation of militaryinfirmaries, allocation of the monetary help to field army in the years of the Crimean war, the Russian-Turkishand Russian-Japanese wars, and also during World War I is shown.Philanthropic activity of separate German families is also considered. In particular it is shown a contributionof representatives of the Kesslers, Falts-Feyns, Shneyders, Lyustikhs, Shlees and many other dynasties.
Also, the active help to the state and the surrounding population was rendered at a difficult moment by Lutheranand Mennonite communities. Representatives of Karasanskaya, Neyzatskaya, Spatskaya and Tsyurikhtalskayacommunities were especially active.It is proved on many examples that ethnic Germans, after strengthening of their economic situationthroughout the second half of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century were among active donors for needsof wounded soldiers. They gave help to families which lost supporters in the war.

Leybenson J. T.
Ars medica of Northern Black Sea region in antiquity
The article is devoted to the study of medical knowledge and practice of the ancient city-states of theNorthern Black Sea region. The main objectives of the article - to consider the relationship of the Healing Artin N.Pontic region with medical centers antiquity (Pergamon, Epidaurus, Colophon, Kos) and classic works ofGreek and Roman authors: Hippocrates, Galen, Celsus; to compare collection of medical instruments, mainlyfrom Olbia and Chersonesos, with the collections of surgical devices from Pompeii, Baden, Bing, as well aswith the description of the purpose and functions of the medical equipment in the work "De Medicina" byAulus Cornelius Celsus. Author also give a historical and anthropological data about the nature of diseases ofthe local population in antiquity. The medicine of ancient cities considered in its three versions: Professional,temple and traditional.

Lepisevich N. Z.
Magazine «Marine Collection» as a source of biography by prominent figures of the Black Sea Fleet
Were considered the basic biographical publications of the magazine «Marine Collection», which werededicated to the individuals whose lives were linked with the Crimea. It has been established that thesematerials are an important Crimean local-history source. They give us the main characteristics of theoutstanding figures of the Black Sea Fleet – D. P. Senyavin, F. F. Ushakov, A. S. Greig, G. I. Butakov andother naval commander. Publishing biographies in the magazine was intended not only to pay tribute to theheroes, but also set an example for others who may pursue a naval officer career. These circumstances explainthe predominantly positivist approach to the presentation of the material. The uniqueness of the data publishedin the journal, is based on the fact that the authors of articles often personally knew their heroes, was theirclose friends or colleagues at work. Another factor that enhanced the importance of biographical publicationswas the painstaking work of his correspondents. Thus, V. P. Il'inskii personally visited the burial of AdmiralUshakov in Tambov province. On the one hand, the materials' of «Marine Collection» caught the basicunderstanding of the important figures who served in the Navy, during the period from the end of XVIII andthe beginning of the XX century, which became over time the traditional and well-established. On the otherhand, the texts in the magazine were often prepared by people who knew the heroes of their materials, whichmakes these works particularly valuable as a biographical source on the history of the Crimea.

Manaev A. Yu.
On the Issue of State of Architectural Monuments of Crimea in 1944
The history of the study of the Crimean monuments today is the focus of many researchers. At the sametime the measures to protect the monuments of the peninsula in the middle of the 40s of the last century arepractically unexplored.
The new documents were revealed in the State Archive of the Republic of Crimea, which are the acts ofinspection of the architectural heritage. The expedition of the Department for Architecture of Council of NationalCommissars of RSFSR worked in during the summer of 1944. The employees of the expedition inspectedthe monuments of Kerch, Feodosia, Sudak, Stariy Krim, Simferopol, Sevastopol, Yalta, Alupka, Bakchisaray.The state and the economic usage of the cultural heritage were committed in the acts of the Commission.The revealed documents make possible the detailed restoration of chronology and activities for the protectionof monuments in the Crimea in the early postwar months. At the same time these acts determine a widerange of issues that need to be addressed to further research: biographical studies with respect to members ofthe expedition, archival search for graphic and photo materials related to the activities of the Commission.

Osmanov E. E.
Mosque Biuk Khan-Jami and Tahtali-Jami in Bakhchisaray
Mosques were the most numerous religious buildings of Bakhchisaray. There were 32 in the era in theCrimean Khanate. Mosques incorporated number of historical monuments of Bakhchisaray as special type ofMuslim architecture. The article, based on research results and conducting repair and restoration work in theperiod from the late eighteenth century - before the beginning of the twenty-first century. The article analyzedhistory of design and architectural appearance Biuk Khan Jami (The Big Khan Mosque) located in the easternpart of the Khan's palace and Tahtali-Jami in the old part of city Bakhchisaray. Khan-Jami is of particularinterest for the history of the Crimean Tatar religious architecture, as in the future disappeared practice toinstall two minarets (the mosque of the eighteenth century have a minaret), rarely has been applied a system ofopen arcades. Biuk Khan Jami belongs to one of the earliest buildings of the Khan's palace. There is aninscription above the door of the main entrance on the left that says that the mosque was built (rebuilt) bySelyamet-Giray Khan in 1740. It was, for the restoration and repair of the previously existing building of themosque after a fire in 1736, when Russian troops under the command of Field Marshal Munnich capturedBakhchisarai. In 1764 the mosque again was repaired and painted by Iranian master Omer. Tahtal? Jami – oneof the few remaining monuments in the old part of the city, which bears the stamp of medieval architecture. Itwas built by the daughter of Haji Selim Giray Khan Bek-Sultan Khanum in 1704. It is assumed that the initialpart of the mosque or the whole building was made of wood, hence the name means "wooden mosque," one ofthe few almost completely preserved. Therefore, this block was often called Tahtal?-Jami. Restoration worksof the late XVIII-XX centuries did not change their appearance practically, so they kept the oriental flavor.The Big Khan Mosque (Biuk Khan-Jami) and Tahtal?-Jami are functioning mosques at the present stage.

Sokolov A. A.
Monuments sacral architecture Crimea in epoch Khrushchev religious persecution (late 50's mid 60-ies. XX century)
The problems of protection of monuments of religious architecture in the period of the First Secretary ofthe Central Committee of the CPSU Khrushchev. On concrete examples show the effect of policies, the country's
leadership on the state of monuments. Transferred to the scale of atheistic held across the country, part ofwhich was a deliberate destruction of religious sites. Demonstrated irresponsible character makes a decisionand acting impotence protection of monuments legislation. Particular attention is paid to the facts of the destructionof religious buildings, bringing them to the state of emergency and use for commercial purposes.
Utilitarian attitude to such monuments often lead to irreparable consequences. For a long time remained withoutrepair dilapidated monuments and fell into disrepair. An example of the difficult fate of unique historicaland cultural monuments: the Cathedral of St. Vladimir in Chersonesos, Church of the Archangels Michael andGabriel in Theodosia, the church of John the Baptist in Kerch, Juma-Jami mosque and Mufti-Jami. Each ofthem has suffered irreparable loss in the external appearance and internal decoration, forever lost its originalappearance. The article sanctified consequences of such a policy that has caused irreparable damage to thecultural heritage of the Crimea.

Spivak I. A.
The Christians of Arabia shown by Ibn Hisham
The Article is devoted to the identification of the pattern image of the Christians of Arabia in the text«The Biography of the Allahmessenger» by Ibn Hisham. The analysis is conducted by comparing in the texttwoopposing religious groups-Christians and Jews. In this Ibn Hisham`swork there are threeclearly distinguishedgroups of Christians and Jewstestimonies, arranged in chronological order and woven into thistextabout the life of Muhammad: the episodes associated with the prediction of the prophetic mission of Muhammad,the stories about the «faithtest» and hostile actions against the prophet and Islam. The main evaluationcriterion for the author of the «The Biography of the Allahmessenger» it was Christians relationship to theprophetic mission of Muhammad and Islam. According to this criterion, Ibn Hisham portrays Arabian Christians,confronting them with the Jews, and Christians in the text of Ibn Hisham have clear benefit ifcomparingthemto the Jews. So Christians, of course, recognize the truth of Islam and the prophetic mission of Muhammad.Even the obvious differences between Muslims and Christians in the dogmas of the faith, do not preventin Ibn Hisham work accept the truth of Islam by Christians. The probable reason for this was the fact that Muhammadin the early period of his activity was in contacts with representatives of the Christian heretical sects,which, as he were persecuted, that is why them, unlike the Jews, had not an uncompromising attitude towardsthe activities of the prophet. In the attitude formationtoward Christians had tradition support of Muhammad bya cousin of the prophet`s first wife, which was close to Christianity had a great importance and events associatedwith persecuted Muslims escapeto Christian Ethiopia also. In addition, we cannot ignore that Muslims,just like Christians were rejected by Jews and experienced a «crisis of religious identity faced with Judaism».Thus,Ibn Hisham shawn accusations of the Jews,because they could notovercome ethno-confessional isolation,and hidden compliments to Christians becouse they were very closeto understanding the universal natureof Islam.

Reviews.

Nepomnyaschy A. A.
Between the East and the West, between Jozef and Joseph
This review positively evaluates the monograph of the famous Russian researcher Yuri Arkadievich Borisyonok«At the sharp turns of the Byelorussian history: society and the state between Poland and Russia in thefirst half of the XX century». This work is the first comprehensive scientific work, which identified and refinedthe course, causes and results of the state-bulding processes and nation-building processes on the ethnicByelorussian lands. In the all sections of the monograph the main aspects of the emergence and solutions tothe "Byelorussian issue" are described. In particular, there was meticulously deconstructed the myth of theorigin of the national nature of the rebellion of Vincent Constantine (Kastus’) Kalinovsky. The events of 20x-30-ies of XX century, when the Byelorussian lands became an arena of confrontation for Poland and the SovietUnion, were also thoroughly analyzed by Y. A. Borisyonok. Thus, the historian traced the mechanism ofimplementation and the results of the Byelorussization policy. It should be noted conducted by researchers.The archaeographic work conducted by the researcher also should be noted. He has published 15 importantdocuments that characterized the policy of the Soviet government in the province. Y. A. Borisyonok monographclose the existing gap in the historiography, and also is a valuable contribution to the development problemsof the regional history.